10 mai 2006

2005 World Cinema Stats

Every May before Cannes, Cahiers du Cinema publish a special issue on the past year's cinema market worldwide. It is entirely bilingual (french-english). Each country, among 32 with an active film industry, is overviewed by a local correspondant. A look at the mainstream movies followed en masse by the public as well as the critically acclaimed works that might not have been distributed internationally yet. The comparison too between domestic production and foreign films (which means Hollywood blockbusters squatting the Box Office, in about every non-USA country in the world) It's always an insightful retrospective at the current health of cinema. These stats contradicts the usual misconceptions we have about dominants and reveal the impressive resistance of cinema nations under-development despite the lack of a solid industry. It helps to relativize all the cries and awes at the mere 7% drop at the american B.O. that worried the press to no ends...

Here is the ranking of countries in 4 categories for 2005 :

FILMS PRODUCED
(including co-productions)
  • 2,601 - China
  • 1,041 - India
  • 931 - Europe
  • 611 - USA (in 2004)
  • 356 - Japan
  • 240 - France
  • 202 - Germany
  • 142 - Spain
  • 123 - UK
  • 90 - Italy
  • 83 - South Korea
  • 69 - Canada
  • 67 - Cambodia
  • 66 - Argentina
  • 66 - Iran
  • 62 - Russia
  • 55 - Hong Kong
  • 53 - Mexico
  • 46 - Brasil
  • 43 - Belgium
  • 43 - Taiwan
  • 39 - Thailand
  • 29 - Austria
  • 27 - Turkey
  • 27 - Québec
  • 24 - Czech
  • 24 - Poland
  • 23 - Malaysia
  • 19 - Australia
  • 15 - South Africa
  • 15 - Marocco
  • 14 - Portugal
  • 2 - Lebbanon

DOMESTIC SHARE
(percentage)

  • 99 % - Iran
  • 95 - USA
  • 95 - India
  • 68.5 - China
  • 59 - South Korea
  • 42 - Turkey
  • 41.3 - Japan
  • 36.9 - France
  • 35.1 - Hong Kong
  • 35 - Cambodia
  • 34 - UK
  • 29.7 - Russia
  • 24.2 - Czech
  • 20 - Thailand
  • 18.9 - Québec
  • 18.7 - Italy
  • 18 - Marocco
  • 17.1 - Germany
  • 16.6 - Spain
  • 16 - South Africa
  • 14 - Malaysia
  • 12 - Brasil
  • 11.4 - Argentina
  • 10 - Poland
  • 5.2 - Canada
  • 4.5 - Mexico
  • 4.1 - Belgium
  • 3 - Portugal
  • 2.8 - Australia
  • 2 - Austria
  • 1.6 - Taiwan
  • 1 - Lebbanon

ADMISSIONS (Million)

  • 1,430 - China
  • 1,400 - USA
  • 769.1 - Europe
  • 500 - India
  • 175.7 - France
  • 164.7 - UK
  • 162.5 - Mexico
  • 160.5 - Japan
  • 143 - South Korea
  • 127.3 - Germany
  • 126 - Spain
  • 105 - Canada
  • 91.8 - Russia
  • 90.5 - Italy
  • 82.2 - Australia
  • 45 - Thailand
  • 37.2 - Argentina
  • 29 - South Africa
  • 27.3 - Turkey
  • 26 - Malaysia
  • 26 - Québec
  • 23.3 - Poland
  • 21.9 - Belgium
  • 20 - Taiwan
  • 18.9 - Hong Kong
  • 15.7 - Portugal
  • 14.5 - Austria
  • 10.7 - Brazil
  • 9.5 - Czech
  • 7.8 - Iran
  • 6 - Marocco
  • 2.1 - Lebbanon
  • 0.8 - Cambodia

SCREENS

  • 38,500 - China
  • 37,482 - USA
  • 25,635 - Europe
  • 9,000 - India
  • 5,314 - France
  • 4,889 - Germany
  • 4,383 - Spain
  • 3,794 - Italy
  • 3,536 - Mexico
  • 3,357 - UK
  • 3,200 - Canada
  • 2,926 - Japan
  • 2,081 - Brasil
  • 1,943 - Australia
  • 1,634 - South Korea
  • 1,333 - Turkey
  • 1,000 - Russia
  • 862 - Poland
  • 789 - Argentina
  • 767 - Québec
  • 667 - Czech
  • 661 - Taiwan
  • 638 - Thailand
  • 629 - Portugal
  • 560 - South Africa
  • 552 - Austria
  • 527 - Belgium
  • 248 - Malaysia
  • 195 - Hong Kong
  • 125 - Marocco
  • 77 - Lebbanon
  • 19 - Cambodia
  • ?? - Iran

Some analytical notes on the stats shall be posted later in the comments below

[EDIT] adding cumulative stats for all European countries under "Europe" for reference.
See 2008 World Cinema Statistics here

15 commentaires:

HarryTuttle a dit…

China, India and USA are the leading cinema industries in the world, but only Hollywood successfully exports internationaly. How many chinese or indian movies do we get to see on our western screens compared to their abundant production? Are they too bad for export, or too idiosyncratic?
Even Japan, which is the smallest country of the top 4, and makes high quality films, doesn't reach out more than any other country, be it at festival selections or under commercial distribution...
Why is the world fed with Hollywood blockbusters only? Of course they are the best marketed and the most expensive budgets too, but I'd like to think the audience doesn't go to the movies only for the star system and the production cost.
In most countries, american movies overwhelm the domestic share, which doesn't help the local industry to prosper...

At the era of a gloabl planet, I find it really sad that individual national identities cannot express themselves wider. What about the curiosity for alternate ways to make cinema, for original culture, for different values, for different styles. Why uniformity and PC concerns are the lower common denominator?
Even outside of the "blockbuster" market share (which will always be dominated by easy entertainment for the mass anyway), quality films, even small films, should not be shut out from international accessibility, even if it matters to a minoritary niche of cinephiles.

HarryTuttle a dit…

This phenomenon is characteristic of the domestic share statistics, which should be completed by the share of Hollywood fare in non-american countries (some 2004 datas are available there), which reveals that the "foreign fare" usually equates to "american import". Non -american foreign films is minoritary in most countries.

Notice the markets most hermetic to foreign cinema are Iran, USA and India ! Iran for political reasons, India for traditional preference for Bollywood musicals. USA, part of the western world isn't as culturally locked out so shouldn't be as reluctant to foreign cinema, even if it isn't in english. The Hollywood exclusivity is obviously an economical dynamic for self-conservation. Although the Hollywood industry isn't exactly an endangered market... considering all other nations struggling to put out a double digit of films for a much smaller audience and without any option to sell them worldwide.

The top10 industries, which are historicaly the western industrialized countries who developped the golden years of cinema (France, USA, Italy, UK, Germany, Spain) and in Asia (Japan, China, India), with the recent addition of Korea a young blooming industry.
Whereas Russia that was part of the founding nations is way down, with a 10th of the USA production!
On the other hand, it's impressive to see small nations from the developping world (Nigeria, Cambodia, Argentina, Iran, Mexico, Brasil, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia...) making more films than some european countries with a healthier economy.

My point is to emphasize how low-tech cinema is possible and can be successful too.
The top quality filmmakers of the new active generation often come from the smallest cinema nations and not as much from the prosperous industries. Namely Taiwan (Hou Hsiao-hsien, Tsai Ming-liang), Thailand (Apichatpong Weerasethakul), Iran (Kiarostami, Makhmalbaf, Panahi), Argentina (Lucrecia Martel), Mexico (Iñarritu, Reygadas), Senegal (Ousmane Sembene)... and even in the western world : Denmark (Lars Von Trier), Hungary (Bela Tarr), Finland (Kaurismaki), Austria (Haneke), Belgium (Dardenne, Akerman)

HarryTuttle a dit…

Regarding the recent controversy about the quotas of the South Korean market it's interesting to note the hold of the domestic production share on their market is one of the highest (after China) among non-exclusive markets. South Korea is only the 10th in film quantity and yet enjoys a more comfortable share to distribute to the audience than Japan, France or Germany who have much more films to sell.

HarryTuttle a dit…

USA sells 1.4 billion admissions, which doesn't account for the export sales. I don't understand how Hollywood is in any position to complain about economical difficulties. If anything they should reconsider the A-list stars salary, because small budget movies can be successful too.

HarryTuttle a dit…

I remember reading somewhere the average budget for a film in Hollywood droped under $100 million. As China and USA are comparable in numbers (admissions and screens), it would be interesting to compare the wealth invested for the cinema industry by these countries.
Anybody knows where to find this figure?

I'd like to know what is the total number of films produced in 2005 in the USA too because it was the only data not available in this Cahiers survey...

Chuck a dit…

My understanding is that Bollywood is marketed successfully in Africa and certain parts of the Middle East (there's a semi-legendeary story of an Iraqi POW recognizing a photo of a famous Bollywood star, but I can't remember teh specifics), so Hollywood doesn't have a monopoly on exporting films, although Western Europe *is* dominated by Hollywood product.

I'm not sure if you've read "Global Hollywood" by Toby Miller, et al, but it's an insightful take on these economic issues.

HarryTuttle a dit…

I didn't know about the Indian exports, although it doesn't reach the span of Hollywood hegemony. What's fascinating with american cinema is how it penetrates every cultural boundery. The only unfriendly countries are so for political reasons, and the bootlegs still enthuse the population on the black market.

Europe and especially English-friendly countries are inhibited by the Hollywood selling machine indeed. France (not so much an English friendly population) and Japan are big producers of films, still they don't even own half of the market share at home.
And the USA, one of the most movie-going population, with the most screens per capita, doesn't even allow room enough for 5% of non-american films...
The world feels duped, the population buys american films and America doesn't buy foreign films.

The american cinema industry is the most profitable, and still resorts to protectionism at home and imperialism abroad, killing local competition. At this point cinema is no culture but an economic asset.

Although this is the free market I agree. People around the world do love american films, and rightly so, because Hollywood knows how to make popular films and make them well. The majority of audience doesn't want auteurist cinema anyway.

HarryTuttle a dit…

thanks for the book reference, I haven't read it, I will look it up.

I really enjoy your blog by the way! ;) always interesting.

Chuck a dit…

You're certainly right about Hollywood films acting as little more than "assets" that benefit from unprecedented trade protection, and yes, the Hollywod films also play very well on the black market in countries whose governments are unfriendly to the US. In watching several documentaries on teh Iraq War, I've been intrigued by representations of American film in Iraq. Interesting stuff.

Thanks for the kind words about my blog. I've enjoyed reading yours as well.

HarryTuttle a dit…

What I was thinking of was the indie films from the last Chinese generation or the South Asian many New Waves who often reference American cinema. Notably in Jia Zhang-ke's or Tsai's films we see characters selling bootlegs of American films.

HarryTuttle a dit…

Within the niche of mainstream movies (which is the core of the B.O. figures making these stats), "blockbusters" from South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, India and even some in Europe are largely as professional and efficient products as in Hollywood. So they should benefit from the same popular success worldwide (at equivalent marketing campaign).

I wish this issue would concern american critics a little more than the drop of summer profits... What is the rational to tolerate a no-foreign distribution within the States?
I heard the american audience doesn't like subtitles (I know french audience doesn't like it more) but is that sufficient to explain?

HarryTuttle a dit…

Related article : Foreign Affairs by DAVID EHRENSTEIN at LA Weekly September 1, 2005

HarryTuttle a dit…

Related article : Movie Wars: How Hollywood and the Media Limit What Films We Can See, by Jonathan Rosenbaum

HarryTuttle a dit…

More on this :
Unshown Cinema by Doug Cummings at Film Journey.

HarryTuttle a dit…

Global moviegoing, including Iceland on David Bordwell's blog. Some additional info on world market in 2005:

Global screens count (in the world): 149,083

Screens count (per million population):
- Iceland 160
- Sweden, USA 130
- Vietnam, Tunisia, Ukraine : ~ 1 to 2

Global box office receipts (billion $): 23.6

Global admissions (billion $): 7.5

Average global ticket price ($US): $3.14
- Most expensive ticket: $11.55 (Switzerland)
- USA: $6.41
- Lowest: $0.32 (India)

Most visits per capita per year:
- Iceland 4.77 times
- USA 4.73
- Singapore 4.16
- France, Spain 2.9
- Belgium 2.1
- Japan 1.26
- Russia 0.55
- Cuba 0.17
- Romania 0.13
- China 0.12