21 octobre 2011

Cinema Quotas

-Cultural Diversity Awareness-

"I do not defend protectionism, but I do defend the right of any state to promote its culture."
Joseph Stiglitz, 2001 Nobel Prize winner for Economics

* * *
What is a cultural policy? (protected by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, UNESCO 2001)
Screening quotas for movies and nationally televised programs or broadcasting requirements for music by national artists.
Financial assistance programs for the performing arts, and for the production, editing and distribution of movies and books, public resources for public radio and television, subsidies for public theatres - this list is long, and no state implements exactly the same policies, fundamentally, each country should have the right to implement the policies it considers appropriate to ensure cultural diversity.
International Federation of Coalitions for Cultural Diversity [PDF
* * *
Article IV: Special Provisions relating to Cinematograph Films
            If any contracting party establishes or maintains internal quantitative regulations relating to exposed cinematograph films, such regulations shall take the form of screen quotas which shall conform to the following requirements:
  1. Screen quotas may require the exhibition of cinematograph films of national origin during a specified minimum proportion of the total screen time actually utilized, over a specified period of not less than one year, in the commercial exhibition of all films of whatever origin, and shall be computed on the basis of screen time per theatre per year or the equivalent thereof;
  2. With the exception of screen time reserved for films of national origin under a screen quota, screen time including that released by administrative action from screen time reserved for films of national origin, shall not be allocated formally or in effect among sources of supply;
  3. Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (b) of this Article, any contracting party may maintain screen quotas conforming to the requirements of subparagraph (a) of this Article which reserve a minimum proportion of screen time for films of a specified origin other than that of the contracting party imposing such screen quotas; Provided that no such minimum proportion of screen time shall be increased above the level in effect on April 10, 1947;
  4. Screen quotas shall be subject to negotiation for their limitation, liberalization or elimination.
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1947) World Trade Organisation

* * *

Country since Domestic film minimum Imports restrictions Domestic share
16 %

5 %

1 national / 20 imported films
16 %
28-644 days
14 %
- Canadian programs should cover 60% of the total television broadcast time and 50 percent of the time during evening hours (6pm to 12am)
- For Direct-to-Home (DTH) broadcast services, more than half of the channels received must show Canadian programs

1 %

20 films / year
61 %

22 %

81 %

35 %
40 percent of the TV broadcasting must be exclusively of French origin and additional 20 percent must be of EU origin110 since 1960
43 %

zero in 1916
27 %
28 days
10 %

12 %
- Over 50 percent of the monthly TV transmission time including prime-time programming, is reserved for programs of EU origin
- “Seat and screen” quotas which require all multiplex movie theatres of more than 1300 seats to reserve 15-20 percent of their seats, distributed over no fewer than three screens, for showing Italian and EU films

21 %
abolished in 1945quotas on imports lifted in 1971
54 %
14 days - Broadcasters are required, through licensing conditions, to devote 70-80 percent of airtime to local programming
13 %
10% since 1997
8 %

3 %

24 %
South Africa

2 %
South Korea
73 since 2007 - Domestically produced programs must cover a minimum of 50% (nonterrestrial) and 80% (terrestrial) of the broadcasting time - Upper limit for the share of total foreign broadcasting time for any foreign films, animation or popular music, from a single country is kept at 60 percentRegistered companies allowed to produce/import 6<26 / 1989 : foreign prints limited to 12 (abolished in 1994)
46 %
73-91 days
13 %

abolished in 2001
3 %
20% since 1935 (The Cinematograph Films Act of 1927, repealed in 1960)
16 %

Some countries without Quotas : USA (95% domestic share), Finland (27%), The Philippines (25%)...

Take a look at this World Box Office map and tell me which country is bullying all other countries who earn less and secured a smaller share of their own domestic markets to sell their domestic film production (Answer: USA with a worldwide BO 13 times higher than the next competitor and a domestic share at home of 95% !!!)
Hollywood is pissed off because in France, Japan, South Korea, China or Brazil they own less than 90% of the market, precisely because there are cultural policies in place that protect a minimum share for the local films. Hollywood wouldn't let more than 5% to 8% of foreign films (for the film industries of the entire world), because of cultural isolationism, poor taste and a lame job of the film press and film education in general, yet they have the nerves to slap on the hand of countries that watch Hollywood films with a share of 40-60% already. They think that the commercial mediocrity should contaminate 100% of the world market, no less... no room should ever be left for cultural diversity, let alone for countries to develop a personal, national culture that is not the adolescent dumbness of Hollywood blockbusters.

Cultural exception (French: l’exception culturelle) is a concept introduced by France in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations in 1993. Some countries had voiced their concerns during the final negotiations of the Uruguay Round that implementation of the GATT principles on cultural goods and services "would undermine their cultural specificity (and unique status), in favour of their commercial aspects".
The purpose of Cultural exception is to treat cultural goods and services differently than other traded goods and services because of the intrinsic differences of such goods and services. Many countries defend the fact that cultural goods and services "encompass values, identity and meanings that go beyond their strictly commercial value". It notably allowed France to maintain tariffs and quotas to protect its cultural market from other nation's cultural products, most notably American films and television. South Korean policy in favor of its movie industry is another example of how cultural exception is used to protect the audiovisual market.

French "Exception culturelle" (Marrackech 1993) [PDF] wikipedia 


1 commentaire:

HarryTuttle a dit…

"China has increased the number of Hollywood imports allowed into the country, but more competition could help free up its homegrown industry [..]
The quota has now been expanded to 14 more films in Imax and other large formats, and leaves foreign film producers with a larger share (25%, up from 13%) of the profits. Chris Dodd, chairman of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) hailed it as "a very big deal" for a US industry eager for a bigger bite of China's box office, but some commentators were more cautious. [..]
But Hollywood can console itself with how much appetite China has for its films; even under the previous quota arrangements, it had a 50% share of the market. Which, for me, begs the question: do film quotas actually work at all? It doesn't look that way in China's case; maybe the free-trade mantra that it is filmgoers, not governments, who should decide what ends up in cinemas actually has some weight here. That argument usually seems self-serving when the US puts pressure on a country over quota arrangements, as it did in Mexico in 1994 and South Korea in 2007: Hollywood's armoured divisions are invariably on high alert to move in (and they virtually destroyed the 90s Mexican industry). [..]
Quotas seem to work best when they are not simply keeping foreign films out, but actively promoting the domestic industry. That's how South Korea, with a quota that guaranteed that local offerings would play in cinemas 146 days of the year, had one of the strongest booms of the noughties, nurturing distinctive commercial prospects like Bong Joon-ho and a fistful of modern classics like Old Boy. This was cut back to 73 days in 2007, as part of a wider trade agreement and a slump began.
Spain has maintained some of the highest levels of European film output under a system that sees one day of local films played for every three days of dubbed films. Critics always spit out the P-word – "protectionism" – but surely quotas are just levelling the playing field for smaller industries that can't compete with Hollywood's marketing dollar? [..]
Britain was the first country in 1927, to get prickly about the American influx; at its height, its quota demanded that 45% of all screen time be devoted to British films. [..]"

Will relaxation of 'great wall' quota set Chinese film-makers free? (Phil Hoad; The Guardian; 29 Feb 2012)